- CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT
1. Short-term Expert(s) on Migration Legislation Research, Diaspora Engagement ENIGMMA,2021
UNU-MERIT has been commissioned by ICMPD to conduct an analysis on the legal framework and practice of the Law of Georgia on Compatriots Residing Abroad and Diaspora Organisations reflecting on the best international practices. The objective is to identify, review and research national legislative framework and practices with regard to diaspora in four different countries as case study examples. Specifically, the analysis aims to provide four country examples of diaspora engagement, legislative framework in terms of approaching their diaspora and migrant communities abroad, if/when possible respective Laws and by-laws, policy documents and National Diaspora Strategies. The experts provide suggestions to the “Law of Georgia on Compatriots Residing Abroad and Diaspora Organisations including concise recommendations and possible amendments to the Law. The project is led by Ms Eleni Diker and Dr Nora Ragab.
2. Legal obligations and national legislation and practices around migrant recruitment, 2021
UNU-MERIT has been commissioned again, building on past work, to support International Trade Union Confederation ITUC to develop content for ITUC’s migrant recruitment monitor. As the website extends its focus to the EU, the team conducts research on recruitment processes in eight EU countries (Belgium, Germany, the Netherlands, Italy, Spain, Poland, Bulgaria, and Romania) assessing the extent to which national legislation is aligned with relevant international legal obligations and assessing common challenges encountered in the recruitment process. The results are used to populate the recruitment monitor website and prepare a comparative research report. The expected outputs of the project are to develop a Content for the ITUC Recruitment Monitor Website in the eight EU countries and to deliver a comparative report reviewing experiences. The project is led by Dr Elaine Lebon-McGregor.
3. Comprehensive Migration Policy for the GoIRA, Expert for development of Action Plan, project Improving Migration Management in the Silk Routes Countries, 2021
The aim of this project is to maximize the development potential of migration and mobility within the Silk Routes region and towards major labour receiving countries as well as to establish comprehensive regional responses to migration and mobility with full respect of human rights and protection of migrants. Against this background, under the Component 2 – Silk Routes Facility, the Project supported the Government of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan (GoIRA) and its Ministry for Refugees and Repatriation (MoRR) in the domain of migration management with a specific focus on the development of a Comprehensive Migration Policy (CMP), through provision of expert support. The developed policy (CMP) was elaborated in consultations with all relevant government stakeholders working in the area of migration and beyond, as well as with wider society, at all levels. It provides an all-inclusive migration framework with defined goals and objectives, address the current challenges vis-à-vis mixed migration flows, and provide concrete policy responses addressing these challenges. The policy breaks down into four priority areas: (a) ensuring safe returns through reintegration and resettlement, (b) regular migration, (c) irregular migration, and (d) migration and development. The outputs of the projects are to facilitate and moderate the action planning workshop as per defined priority area, to develop the actions focusing on implementation of the policy responses to the Priority Area 4: Migration and Development and to support the development of the Action Plan in the area of Return and Reintegration. The project is led by Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel.
4. Mid-Term Review of the Safer Migration Project, Phase III, 2021
UNU-MERIT and a national consultant Sharu Joshi are part of a consortium led by Maastricht University in this project which aims to contribute to a better protection of migrants. The Safer Migration (SaMi) Project phase III (September 2018 – July 2022) is a bilateral initiative of the Governments of Nepal and Switzerland. The project responds to the challenges faced by Nepalese who go for foreign employment, mainly to the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries and Malaysia. The overall goal of the SaMi project is stated as: “Migrants & their families are better protected by concerned Nepali institutions and benefit from decent work conditions abroad”. UNU-MERIT and a national consultant based in Nepal are conducting a Mid-Term Review of the project to assess the achievements made by the SaMi project so far during the third phase. This is done against the background of the new federal structure in Nepal, new implementation modalities of the project, and the new emerging needs and challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. A special focus is put on the project design, institutional setup and processes, the achievements made so far, and the sustainability of the project beyond the current phase. The project is led by Dr Elaine Lebon-McGregor and Dr Katrin Marchand.
5. Development of the Toolkit in Diaspora Mapping, 2020 –2021
UNU-MERIT has been commissioned by IOM, to support the development of a diaspora mapping toolkit. The aim is to strengthen capacities of national governments, research institutions, and IOM field missions to conduct high quality, cost-efficient, effective, and comparable diaspora mapping studies and to use mapping methodologies that are attuned to the specific objectives/needs of the governments, for example skills resources, remittances, return potential, investment, and philanthropy. The output of this project is the Toolkit on Diaspora Mapping and the components of this toolkit include: Technical reports on Relevant Research Tools and Methods within IOM and Beyond, Step by step How-To Guide for Diaspora Mapping, a Guidance on Method Specific Tools for Diaspora Mapping and a comprehensive diaspora mapping survey. The project is led by Dr Michaella Vanore, Dr Nora Ragab, and Dr Katrin Marchand.
6. Beyond recovery: A post-COVID-19 Socio-Economic Response for Migrants and their Communities of Origin, Transit and Destination, 2020 –2021
The aim of this project is to write a paper that assesses the policy responses of national and local governments and at the international level to address the socio-economic consequences of COVID-19 on migrants and their communities in countries of origin, transit, and destination. More specifically, this paper looks at the impacts, socio-economic policy responses to the COVID-19 pandemic and at socio-economic (re)integration beyond recovery in turn. Particular focus is placed on rights-based and gender-sensitive policy recommendations looking at both recovery but also longer-term development plans. The paper is developed in partnership with the International Labour Organization (ILO), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), and the UN Network on Migration. The main output of this project is a UN Network on Migration Discussion Paper. The project is led by Dr Katrin Marchand.
7. Comparative Reintegration Outcomes in Forced and Voluntary Returns” and “Understanding and Implementing Gender- sensitive Sustainable Reintegration”, 2020-2021
UNU-MERIT has been commissioned by IOM to conduct studies titled “Comparative Reintegration Outcomes in Forced and Voluntary Returns” and “Understanding and implementing gender-sensitive sustainable reintegration” under the EU-IOM Knowledge Management Hub funded by the EU. The first study on “Comparative reintegration outcomes of forced and voluntary returns” will focus on comparing the reintegration outcomes between forced and voluntary returnees who equally benefited from the reintegration support provided through the EU-IOM Actions and other programmes, to determine how the modality of return (forced versus voluntary) influences the reintegration sustainability outcomes. This research will be undertaken in conjunction with another study on “Understanding and implementing gender-sensitive sustainable reintegration”. This study will aim to better understand the gendered dimensions of the reintegration experience as well as identify good practices for gender-sensitivity in reintegration programming. The outcome of this study will inform the design, implementation and evaluation of reintegration support programmes for male and female returnees as well as feed into recommendations for gender-sensitive return and reintegration policy and advocacy. The project is led by Dr Sonja Fransen.
8. Short-term expert: Research on Means to Improve Human Mobility Channels, 2020
UNU-MERIT was part of a consortium led by the University College Dublin in this project which contributed research papers on how skills, education, labour markets, and migration policies intersect to encourage the migration of Egyptian youth to key European destination countries. The objective of the project was to use research to identify the scope and consequences of irregular Egyptian youth mobility to European countries and to identify the policy mechanisms that may support sustainable, dignified movement of Egyptian labour migrants into select European destinations in the future. The outputs of this project were four research paper: Understanding the labour markets of key EU destination countries, Vocational education and training (VET) in Egypt and key EU destination countries, Mobility support schemes between Egypt and the European Union and Circular migration and development of skills. The project was led by Dr Michaella Vanore.
9. Networks-led national Diaspora dialogue in Europe, 2020–2021
UNU-MERIT is commissioned by the Danish Refugee Council’s Diaspora Programme to provide support within their “Networks-led national Diaspora dialogue in Europe” project. The aim of the project is to promote Syrian civil society and diaspora as constructive stakeholders for the future of Syria and in their countries of residence. This is done by empowering Syrian networks in Europe to start national dialogues for Syrians in the diaspora on their role in their host country and towards Syria. UNU-MERIT will provide technical support to the networks, while also using the opportunity to document and analyse the country dialogues events, with the aim to generate lessons learned, successful practices, and recommendations to empower Syrian civil society organisations in their constructive engagement towards Syria and the host countries. The research component is led by Eleni Diker and Dr Nora Jasmin Ragab.
10. Evaluation of Infomigrants.net migration platform, 2020–2021
UNU-MERIT is commissioned by France Media Monde to carry out a monitoring and evaluation of the multimedia platform Infomigrants.net. The objective of the platform is to provide relevant, timely and accurate news and information in Arabic, French, English, Dari and Pashto to migrants in countries of origin, transit and destination. The objective of the project is to monitor and evaluate the progress and impact of the platform through media content analysis, focus groups and interviews with migrants in three countries: Egypt, France, and the Netherlands. The project is led by Dr. Katrin Marchand and Dr Lisa Andersson.
11. Gendering Migration: Women and Girls Experiences of Gender-based discrimination, abuse and violence across migratory stages (WUN), 2019–2021
The aim of this project is to bring together an interdisciplinary global platform to advance research and approaches to women’s migration flows, patterns, experiences, agency and vulnerabilities. This project brings forth recent research findings regarding experiences of women and girls in their migration, and how women and girls exercise agency and respond to human rights abuses, thereby moving beyond a victimization approach. The network includes scholars from multiple disciplines (migration, psychology, sociology) that seek to work collaboratively with UN organizations and NGOs to improve data collection on women’s migration and the representation of vulnerable women in migration research. This team will build throughout its mandate on existing research in Taiwan with female marriage migrants, in South Africa with women labour migrants, in Australia with resettled refugees, in Mexico/Central America with migrants and route to the United States, and in Europe with female asylum seekers and irregular migrants. All these flows address underrepresented and researched female migration experiences and patterns. The network is led by Dr Katie Kuschminder.
12. Short-term expert in the Migration Media Training Academy (MOMENTA 1 and 2) project of the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), 2019-2020
UNU-MERIT was part of a consortium led by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) (and other experts and partners) to provide training to journalists on basic migration terminology and trends (MOMENTA 1) and to support the in-depth review of a migration training kit for journalists (MOMENTA 2). The Migration Media Training Academy (MOMENTA) project organized by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) aimed to support more balanced and evidence-based reporting on migration and migrants by providing journalists with training, resources, and access to specialist knowledge networks. UNU-MERIT supported the finalization of a migration training kit for journalists, essentially a handbook of good journalist practices for the field of migration and asylum. The project led by Dr. Michaella Vanore.
13. NORFACE: Migration, Transformation and Sustainability (MISTY), 2018–2021
The aim of MISTY is to deliver theoretical advances, novel methodological approaches and significant social impacts concerning the role of migration in transformations to sustainability. The main objectives of MISTY are to expand knowledge of transformations by incorporating migration dynamics, specifically: the impact of aggregate flows of people on sustainability; the consequences of individual level life course dimensions of mobility and sustainability; the governance of migration and its consequences for sustainability. The project will develop new theoretical understanding of the interaction between migration and sustainability trajectories and will generate findings that will inform policy and practice in a wide range of government and non-government domains at different scales. The project is led by Dr. Sonja Fransen.
14. Short-term expert in developing a policy on engagement with Iraqis abroad under the project “Improving Migration Management in the Silk Routes Countries”, 2018-2021
UNU-MERIT was part of a consortium led by ICMPD (other experts we involved in early phases of the policy development process). This project was a part of ongoing support to governments of the so-called “Silk Routes” countries (i.e., Afghanistan, Iraq, Pakistan). ICMPD provided technical assistance to the government of Iraq in the development of a policy on engagement with Iraqis abroad. UNU-MERIT acted as short-term experts in developing this policy, which entailed conducting background information on the Iraqi diaspora, supporting consultation sessions with the government, and drafting an engagement policy that responded to the needs and interests of Iraqis abroad. The project resulted in a draft “Policy on Engagement with Iraqis Abroad”, which as of October 2020 was accepted by the Ministry of Migration and Displacement for further specification in a policy action plan. This project led by Dr. Michaella Vanore.
15. Evaluation of the EU-Tunisia Mobility Partnership, 2019–2020
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by ICMPD to carry out an evaluation of the European Union Mobility Partnerships in Tunisia and Armenia. The purpose of the evaluation was to carry out a multi-dimensional and independent evaluation of the EU-Tunisia MP, to provide a report on the MPs’ outcomes on various levels, to formulate lessons learnt, and to provide recommendations on the future implementation and ways forward. The evaluation was conducted through qualitative, in-depth interviews with representatives of EC Services and EU Agencies, as well as representatives from EU Member States, partner countries, international organizations, and civil society organizations. The project is led by Dr. Sonja Fransen.
16. Iraqi minorities in diaspora: a mapping of community structures, perceptions on return and connections to the homeland, 2019–2020
UNU- MERIT was commissioned by the IOM to carry out a research study to explore the interests and capacities of members of different Iraqi minority diaspora communities and the organizations to which they belong to contribute to the recovery and development of Iraq. In addition to assessing their engagement behaviours, the study also explored their perceptions of temporary or more long-term return to Iraq, including the factors that limit or encourage their future return intentions. The research focused particularly on the experiences and perceptions of members of religious minority diaspora communities, such as Yazidis and Christians, in the United States, Germany and Georgia. The project is intended to feed into the design of programmes and policies within IOM, which will incorporate the research findings into more tailored and specialised “community bridging” interventions in Iraq. The project is led by Dr. Michaella Vanore
17. The impact on social protection interventions on migration dynamics in Senegal, 2019–2020
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the FAO to empirically assess the impact of social protection interventions on migration dynamics in Senegal and to develop an FAO policy paper on the relationship between social protection and migration. The research team used household data collected by FAO in collaboration with the National Agency of Statistics and Demography of Senegal to investigate the effects of social protection on household decisions regarding migration. In addition, the team probed the role of remittances as informal safety nets and as potential resource for agricultural and rural development in Senegal. Finally, the policy paper outlines FAO’s existing and future work on social protection and migration based on extensive review of FAO documents and projects as well as interviews and surveys with key FAO personnel and external partners. The project was led by Dr Bruno Martorano, Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel.
18. Study on mapping of Kazakhstan’s national system’s capacity to respond to the needs of children affected by migration, 2018-2020
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the UNICEF in Kazakhstan to explore how the fundamental rights of such children—referred to as unaccompanied or separated children (UASC) affected by migration—were protected once children were identified as UASC and taken into the care of the Kazakhstani authorities. The project was a study on mapping of Kazakhstan’s national system’s capacity to respond to the needs of children affected by migration with a focus on unaccompanied and separated children (UASCs). In many parts of Central Asia, children may cross borders without their parents or legal guardians, or their parents or guardians may migrate without them, raising concerns about their well-being and its protection. The project led by Dr. Michaella Vanore.
19. INTERREG-V-A: youRegion, 2018–2020
The project pursued two overarching objectives: to promote the cross-border labour market in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine (EMR) by centrally coordinating the advisory and placement services and to establish a euregional welcome culture for newcomers, employees and companies in the region. The project aimed at increasing cross-border cooperation of already existing services, seeking to attract and retain newcomers and to integrate them into the (euregional) labour market, and to improve cross-border information services for precarious workers. UNU-MERIT contributed to the project by analysing newcomers’ experiences and satisfaction with relevant Euregional services. The output of this project is a report about the experiences and needs of newcomers in the Euregio Meuse-Rhine based on event observations, migrant interviews, an online survey and a focus group discussion between key stakeholders. In particular, the report focuses on newcomers’ experiences with services in the region (e.g. Expat Centre, Newcomer Service), the extent to which they felt welcome upon arrival and the underlying mechanisms. This project was led by Julia Reinold.
20. Regional Development and Protection Programme for the Horn of Africa, 2017–2020
As part of a consortium with partners from MDF/APE, Samuel Hall and ECDPM, UNU-MERIT set out on a multi-year assessment of the Regional Development and Protection Programme (RDPP) for the Horn of Africa. The RDPP for the Horn of Africa was launched in 2015 to improve protection and enhance development prospects of refugees, IDPs and local communities, aiming to offer an alternative to risks of irregular migration. Through the programme, partners aimed to contribute to durable, comprehensive solutions for long term development challenges posed by protracted forced displacement of refugees in their host communities. The evaluation by the consortium consisted of in-depth case studies including new household surveys in five countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Sudan, Somalia and Uganda. The project was led within UNU-MERIT by Dr. Craig Loschmann and Dr Sonja Fransen.
21. Fluctuations in Migration Flows on the Balkans Route 2018–2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the WODC to provide a better understanding of the factors that help to explain the fluctuations on the route from Turkey to Greece and then via the Western Balkans to other European Union (EU) countries, leading to what has been termed Europe’s ‘refugee crisis’ between 2015 and the end of 2018. The study looked at the fluctuations in terms of the volume of flows and the shifting geography of the route. In particular, the project investigated whether and how policy interventions and other events – with a focus on the EU-Turkey Statement – have impacted the decision-making of refugees and migrants in Turkey and on the Balkans route during these years. The analysis drew on a combination of desk research and 96 in-depth interviews with Syrians and Afghans, as well as 38 interviews with key stakeholders, which were conducted in Turkey, Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the Netherlands in early 2019. The main project output was a report titled ‘Decision making on the Balkan Route and the EU-Turkey Statement’, which was published online alongside a ‘management summary’ in English and Dutch. Dr. Katie Kuschminder led the project in partnership with Koc University and Erasmus University Rotterdam.
22. Complementary Pathways for Adult Refugees, 2018–2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to contribute to a research project led by the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD) and the Italian-based International and European Forum on Migration Research (FIERI). The purpose of this research project was to increase the evidence base for complementary pathway mechanisms for admission of adult refugees from a first host country to another EU country, through the use of vocational education and training (VET), skills and qualifications. The project involved national experts for Canada, Norway, Greece, Italy, Germany, Spain, Finland, France, Ireland, the Netherlands, Portugal and Sweden. As the national experts for the Netherlands, the team at UNU-MERIT prepared a report each for WA 1 and WA 2. For WA1, several initiatives in the Netherlands were investigated regarding their relevance for building a potential complementary pathway for adult refugees based on VET, skills and qualifications. For WA2, a national case study on the EU Relocation Programme for the Netherlands was prepared with a focus on the use of skills and qualifications in this process. Finally, two consultation meetings with different stakeholders were organized in the Netherlands to explore options for WA 3. Open discussions were held with employers, on the one hand, and policy makers on the other hand. Dr Katrin Marchand contributed to all four phases of this project as national experts for the Netherlands.
23. Syrian Diaspora mobilization in the context of political uncertainties, 2018–2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out a study on future scenarios of Syrian diaspora mobilization in Europe and Syria’s neighbouring countries. In particular the study sought to explore how different Syrian diaspora actors would be willing and able to or have been already adjusting to the political realities inside Syria and what future scenarios there may be for constructive involvement of diaspora groups. The research made use of an action-based approach, in which future scenarios and potential strategies for action have been elaborated collaboratively in a participatory manner. Next to serving as a tool to generate knowledge, the aim was to provide a space for the development of future scenarios and joint strategies for action for the Syrian civil society in the respective host countries. The study yielded a range of practical considerations relevant to stakeholders who seek to engage with Syrian diaspora actors.
24. Women’s Political Participation and Corruption: What Works in Engaging Female Politicians in Anticorruption, 2018–2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to conduct a study on female politicians’ engagement in the fight against corruption. The overarching aim of this project was to generate evidence to promote female politicians’ leadership in transparency and anti-corruption policies. The team was asked to develop and test a methodology that can later be applied locally by each national chapter of Transparency International. The regional focus of this pilot project was Latin America; Argentina and Mexico were selected as the two pilot countries. The study was conducted by Dr. Ortrun Merkle, Charlotte Mueller, Clara Alberola and Sarah Roeder.
25. Curriculum development for the Kenya Institute of Migration Studies (2018)
UNU-MERIT is contracted by GIZ to collaboratively develop and implement a curriculum for a graduate diploma in migration studies offered by the Kenya Institute of Migration Studies (KIMS) in Nairobi. We hold stakeholder engagement workshops to train regional migration experts, academics, practitioners, government officials and civil society organizations to tailor the curriculum to the needs of end-users. In addition, we provide training for trainers of the diploma programme.
26. H2020: The Role of European Mobility and its Impacts in Narratives, Debates and EU Reforms (REMINDER), 2017–2019
UNU-MERIT along with 13 European institutions were part of a consortium which implemented this three-year project which investigated the economic, social, institutional and policy factors that have shaped free movement in the EU, its impacts and the public debates surrounding it. The project combined expertise from different fields, including development, economics, linguistics, media studies, political science and public policy. Researchers from UNU-MERIT were involved in two of the 12 work packages, namely WP2 on Mapping and WP3 on Determinants. For WP2, the UNU-MERIT team analysed the state of data on intra-EU migration based on a desk review and analysis of existing sources and interviews with experts. The work resulted in an assessment of what existing data can tell us about intra-EU migration and where the gaps are. To support other researchers interested in intra-EU migration, a database of databases on intra-EU migration was created. For WP3, the UNU-MERIT researchers collected data from different kinds of migrants on their migration decision-making on both movements within and to the EU. Focus groups, interviews and surveys were conducted with migrants in five focus countries: Germany, Italy, Spain, Sweden and the UK. Based on the fieldwork, the research added to the evidence base on the complexity of migration decision-making, especially in the context of free movement within the EU. The work packages were led by Dr Katrin Marchand and Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel.
27. Erasmus+: Helping Students in Acceptance (HESTIA), 2017–2019
The aim of the project was to help the integration of immigrant children at schools from five countries: the 6th Primary School of Egaleo, Greece; GO! Basisschool Schaarbeek Hendrik Conscience, in Brussels, Belgium; Istituto Comprensivo Statale “Gianni Rodari”, Palagiano, Italy; Associação Jardim Escola João de Deus, Leiria, Portugal; and Maristes Sants Les Corts Fundació Champagnat, Barcelona, Spain. Over the course of two years (2017-2019), participating schools implemented a multitude of activities teaching pupils about migration and human rights. From 22-26 January 2018, UNU-MERIT organised a workshop, during which teachers from participating schools learned about integration of migrant and refugee students and share best practices with Dutch migrant education professionals.
28. Connecting Diasporas for Development (CD4D), 2016–2019
UNU-MERIT implemented an evaluation of the first phase of ‘Connecting Diaspora for Development’ (CD4D), commissioned by the International Organization for Migration (IOM) The Netherlands. CD4D is a diaspora return programme operated by IOM The Netherlands. Its first phase ran from 2016 to 2019 and the second phase from 2019 to 2022. Both phases of the project link diaspora members with Dutch residency to institutions in their countries of origin. This is done via assignments conducted in person with organizations in the assignment countries. Assignment countries during the first phase were Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Ghana, Iraq, Morocco, Sierra Leone and Somalia. The programme focused on capacity development through knowledge transfer and the creation of connections. The evaluation identified why diaspora members and host institutions choose to participate in CD4D, what the expectations of diaspora members and host institutions were for the CD4D project as well as the experiences of host institutions, colleagues, and participants during the programme. Using mostly qualitative methods, over 350 interviews were conducted. This involved several rounds of fieldwork in Afghanistan, Ethiopia, Ghana, Iraq, Sierra Leone and Somalia. Dr. Katie Kuschminder lead the project with Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel, and Charlotte Mueller conducted the research as part of her PhD.
29. Evaluation of EU-IOM Joint-Initiative on Migration Protection and Reintegration in the Horn of Africa, 2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the IOM Regional Office for East and Horn of Africa to conduct a mid-term evaluation of the Joint-Initiative programme in the Horn of Africa. The programme assists migrants who decide to return to their countries of origin to do so in a safe and dignified way and help them restart their lives in their countries of origin. The evaluation was based on qualitative data collection (focus group and key stakeholder interviews) in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan.
30. Development of Migration Policy checklists for partner countries, 2019
For their Global Programme Migration and Diaspora, the Centre for International Migration and Development, a joint operation of GIZ and the German Federal Employment Agency, cooperates with 25 partner countries in the framework of German development cooperation. Part of the programme is advice to the partner countries on issues of migration governance and capacity building in the light of the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly and Regular Migration. To get a comprehensive overview of the current migration trends and policies, GIZ commissioned the Migration Team at UNU-MERIT to compile migration policy checklists for each of the 25 partner countries. These are: Afghanistan, Albania, Cameroon, Columbia, Ecuador, Ethiopia, Georgia, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iraq, Jordan, Kenya, Kosovo, Morocco, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Palestinian Territories, Peru, Senegal, Serbia, Tunisia, Ukraine and Vietnam. For each of the countries, a desk review of existing data, literature and policy documents was conducted to provide an overview of the most relevant migration-related issues for the respective country.
31. The Dutch Ministry of Justice and Security Project, 2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to conduct a two-phased study to provide an overview of how different states of EFTA-countries deal with the deportability and effective non-deportability of rejected asylum seekers. The research discussed the outcomes of the policies in terms of the rate of voluntary and forced return among rejected asylum seekers and the public acceptance of these policies and their outcomes, especially when it concerned asylum seeker families that included minors. The study was led by Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel and Prof. Dr Arjen Leerkes.
32. Expert Advice on Irregular Migration from South Asia to Europe, 2019
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to provide input to an evaluation carried out by Ecorys UK of a project making use of communications campaigns to address irregular migration from South Asia. The use of social media and communications campaigns to deter irregular migration had gained increasing interest in recent times in European countries with significant immigration. This project involved a social and mass media communications campaign targeting potential irregular migrants in their countries of origin. The purpose of the evaluation was to assess the performance of the project in achieving its objectives by using both survey and focus group data. Based on the findings and conclusions, the review provided feedback and recommendations aimed at improving the design of future similar projects. Dr Lisa Andersson contributed to the project as a migration expert.
33. Migration for Development in the Western Balkans: Evaluation of the EC IPA 2009 Multi-beneficiary programme 2-funded IOM Project, 2019
UNU-MERIT carried out an evaluation of the Migration in the Western Balkans (MIDWEB) project. The project had two main components: 1) the extension of the Migrant Service Centre network in the Western Balkans to provide information and support to potential migrants and returnees and 2) temporary return assignment opportunities for 60 qualified professionals originating from one of the project countries but living permanently in Austria, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Switzerland or the UK. The evaluation assessed the relevance, performance and achievements of the MIDWEB project.
34. Pakistani Diaspora Study in Germany, 2019
UNU-MERIT was recommissioned by GIZ to quantitatively and qualitatively analyse the Pakistani diaspora in Germany. The project recognised that diasporas are heterogeneous and complex, as they consist of various individual groups with different interests and agendas (whether formally organised or not). The project aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of Pakistani migrant organisations and associations, as well as covering the migration and integration experience of refugees and asylum-seekers, based in Germany. Moreover, the profiles, characteristics, and activities of these organizations, as well as their development potential were analysed. The study informed GIZ’s Programme Migration for Development, which focuses on best supporting development-oriented forms of return and promoting the capacity of migrants in Germany to engage in knowledge transfer to their origin countries.
35. Inventory of Services and Activities for Newcomers in the Meuse-Rhine Euregion, 2018
In relation to the “youRegion” interreg project, ITEM conducted an “Inventory of Services and Activities for Newcomers in the Meuse-Rhine Euregion”. The project mapped existing initiatives to attract and retain newcomers from within Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands as well as abroad to the region. In doing so, it distinguished between initiatives focusing on different areas which are relevant to facilitate social and economic integration of newcomers and to increase the region’s attractiveness for the target group (e.g. support with bureaucratic issues, housing, employment, language, leisure and culture, etc.). In a second step, the project explored possibilities for increased cross-border cooperation between the mapped initiatives and identified potential gaps in the service provision. The study was based on desk research and interviews with stakeholders and representatives of organisations providing services for newcomers.
36. Migration Routes in West and Central Africa & East and Horn of Africa, 2018
As a follow-up on the 2017 studies on Migration Routes in West and Central Africa, as well as the East and Horn of Africa, GIZ commissioned UNU-MERIT to conduct an updated study. This study describes the currently most prominent irregular and regular migration routes in West and Central Africa and the East and Horn of Africa – namely Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. It covered bilateral and circular (trans-border) labour migration, intra-regional migration as well as outward and return migration: origin countries or sub-national regions, transit points, final destinations of regular (labour) migrants and border areas along the main migration routes where refugees and (irregular) migrants’ cross borders. The project was a response to a significant increase in the commissioning of projects related to (irregular) migration in Africa and specifically the role of GIZ as the designated partner of the EU Commission to coordinate the consortium of EU Member States implementing the Better Migration Management programme. The study furthermore provided updates on each country’s migration profile. In this context, GIZ aimed to better understand the complex dynamics of migration and migration routes in and from the East and Horn of Africa. The project was led by
37. Syrian Diaspora mobilisation in the context of contested sovereignty, 2018
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out a study on future scenarios of Syrian diaspora mobilisation in Europe and Syria’s neighbouring countries. The resolving of the Syrian conflict within the broader Syrian society will be a long-term endeavour, heavily challenged by the fact that the sovereignty of the Syrian government continues to be contested and that the future of Syria’s displaced population, which accounts for almost half of the overall population, remains uncertain. As such one major factor towards future reconstruction and reconciliation will be the fact that a sizeable part of Syria’s civil society had been engaging from abroad, as part of the Syrian diaspora. In particular, the study sought to explore how different Syrian diaspora actors will be willing and able to or are already adjusting to the political realities inside Syria and what future scenarios there may be for constructive involvement of diaspora groups.
38. Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Indian, and Nepalese Diasporas in Germany, 2018
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to quantitatively and qualitatively analyse the Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Indian, and Nepalese diasporas in Germany. The projects’ aim was to provide a comprehensive overview of Ecuadorian, Peruvian, Indian, and Nepalese migrant organisations and associations based in Germany. Moreover, the characteristics and activities of these initiatives, as well as their development potential was analysed.
39. Afghan Diaspora Mapping, 2018
The DRC in collaboration with the DRC Regional Office for Asia’s Diaspora Programme commissioned UNU-MERIT for a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the Afghan diaspora in Denmark, Sweden, Germany and the UK. The study enveloped the characteristics, structure, transnational practices, and potential for cooperation with the DRC, of the Afghan diaspora in the focus countries.
40. European Refugee and Migrant Health Report (ERMHR), 2018
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to contribute quantitatively and quantitatively to the final issue of the ERMH report in line with the Strategy and Action Plan for Refugee and Migrant Health in the WHO European Region. The aim of the report was to provide a summary of the latest evidence on the health of refugees and migrants and country initiatives in the WHO European region. The report was an overview of refugee and migrant health, addressed the public health challenges related to migration and provided evidence to enable the progress towards creating a migrant friendly health system as outlined in the strategy and action plan.
41. Understanding and Managing Internal Migration in Mongolia, 2018
The aim of the project was to support the Government of Mongolia and other actors to strengthen the management of internal migration through a quality assessment of internal migration, as well as migrants’ vulnerabilities, capacity building of government agencies and key stakeholders and policy dialogue to raise awareness and support the development of a plan of action. The role of UNU-MERIT was to contribute to and finalise the research study carried out by the research team of the Population Teaching and Research Centre (PTRC), National University of Mongolia (NUM). The main partners in this project were IOM Mongolia, IOM ROAP Thailand and NUM. This project was led by Dr Craig Loschmann.
42. Analysis of potential African partner countries for labour mobility schemes to Germany, 2018
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by GIZ to carry out an analysis on the labour markets, TVET-systems and migration profiles of Senegal, Nigeria and Ethiopia. The desk study provided the basis for decision-making on potential partner countries, sectors and target groups for labour mobility schemes to Germany. In addition, it provided information regarding potential criteria and formats of labour mobility schemes taking into account current German labour market needs and legal framework conditions. These labour mobility schemes focused on employment and/or training of people from different educational levels. At the same time, they are aimed at maximising the development potential for partner countries by stimulating brain gain and preventing potential brain drain.
43. AKT on Smuggling by Air: Action for knowledge transfer on migrant smuggling by air and document fraud in select MP and CAMM countries, 2018
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to qualitatively and quantitatively study document fraud and migrant smuggling by air (AKT Project). This study analysed the main features, developments and modus operandi of migrant smuggling at airports, in addition to the topic’s interconnection with document fraud and related poly-criminal activities. Following a case-study approach, the focus of the research was on India, Nigeria, and Morocco as source and transit countries and Europe as a destination. In addition, the research project entailed a systematic review of existing laws and regulations concerning migrant smuggling and human trafficking by air at the country level and at the international level. The study was conducted by a research team lead by Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel.
44. Reintegration of Returnees in the Western Balkans, 2018
UNU-MERIT contributed to a World Bank project on the Reintegration of (Roma) Returnees in the Western Balkans. The aim of the overall project was to identify relevant policy responses and implementation pathways for the effective reintegration of returnees in the Western Balkans – with a particular focus on Roma returnees – based on the evidence of reintegration experiences. Dr. Kuschminder and Prof. Dr. Siegel contributed by supporting the design of the project methodology, acting as reviewers to the stakeholder mapping, and writing an academic paper on the reintegration of processes of returnees, with a focus on Roma returnees.
45. Displacement Tracking Matrix 2: Enabling a better understanding of migration flows from Ethiopia, Nigeria, Somalia, and Iraq towards Europe, 2017–2018
The Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) is a system developed by the International Organization for Migration IOM to track and monitor displacement and population mobility. It was designed to systematically capture information on the movements and evolving needs of displaced populations. In this project, researchers from UNU-MERIT analysed data gathered through the DTM to gain a better understanding of the migration journeys of Ethiopian, Nigerian, Somali, and Iraqi nationals to Europe including their migration routes; the roles of intermediaries and the diaspora; the challenges and risks migrants face pre-migration, along the route, and at their destination and upon return; as well as the factors influencing their decision-making factors.
46. Evaluation of European Union Mobility Partnerships, 2017–2018
UNU-MERIT was contracted ICMPD and its Mobility Partnership Facility to carry out an independent evaluation of selected European Union (EU) Mobility Partnerships, namely those with Cabo Verde, Georgia and Moldova. The evaluation sought to examine the extent to which the objectives for the Mobility Partnerships have been met, what sort of impact they have had, as well as how their implementation and functioning could be improved in the future. The evaluation involved a number of in-depth interviews with representatives of European Commission services and EU agencies, EU Member States, partner countries, and international organisations and NGOs.
47. Mapping & Study of the Jordanian and Palestinian Diasporas in Germany, 2017–2018
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by GIZ to quantitatively and qualitatively analyse the Jordanian and Palestinian diasporas in Germany. Diasporas being heterogeneous and complex, this project took an approach recognising that diasporas consist of various groups with different interests, agendas and degrees of organisation. The project aimed to provide a comprehensive overview of Jordanian and Palestinian migrant organisations and associations based in Germany. Moreover, the characteristics and activities of these initiatives as well as their development potential were analysed. The study informs GIZ’s Migration for Development Programme (PME), which focuses on promoting the capacity of migrants in Germany to engage in knowledge transfer to their origin countries. The project was conducted by Dr Zina Nimeh, Nora Ragab and Katharina Koch.
48. Content of Migrant Recruitment Monitor Website, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to undertake a study to support the development of ITUC’s migrant recruitment monitor website. The research team collected and collated relevant information on migrant worker recruitment in 10 countries, namely Sri Lanka, Kenya, Myanmar, Thailand, the United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Lebanon, and Jordan. This included a review of relevant national legislation, a list of licensed/registered private employment agencies, a mapping of bilateral government agreements for migrant workers, a list on common recruitment problems and advice on how to avoid them.
49. Intra-Regional Labour Migration in the East African Community, 2016–2018
Samuel Hall, UNU-MERIT, and the University of Oxford were mandated by DFID to undertake a study on intra-regional labour migration in the East African Community (EAC). The project’s aim was to generate new evidence based on an extensive review of existing data and literature as well as primary data collection and analysis of migration trends in the EAC region. Based on the results of this research, recommendations were given to support government and development interventions aimed at reducing poverty and vulnerabilities by exploring the untapped potential of labour migration.
50. Mobility in the new development strategy of Benin, 2016–2018
As part of the SDC’s development of its 2017-2020 Cooperation Strategy in Benin, UNU-MERIT was commissioned to inform the development of the strategy. Recognising that migration is a transversal theme, the objective of the strategy was to incorporate migration into development projects related to Switzerland’s main areas of intervention in Benin, namely Rural Economic Development, Education and Vocational Training, and Local Governance and Decentralisation. UNU-MERIT conducted fieldwork in Benin interviewing key ministries, international organisations, NGOs and staff at the SDC office in Benin to ensure that the 2017-2020 strategy adequately incorporated migration across the different areas of intervention while remaining coherent with the regional programme of SDC’s West Africa Division and the Global Programmes of the SDC. A key message of the report is the importance of including migration in the development strategy of Benin in the coming years. The fieldwork was conducted by Dr Özge Bilgili.
51. Displacement Tracking Matrix: Studying Migration Flows from Afghanistan and Pakistan to Europe (DTM), 2016–2018
The Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) is a system developed by the International Organisation for Migration IOM to track and monitor displacement and population mobility. It is designed to systematically capture information on the movements and evolving needs of displaced populations. In this project, researchers from UNU-MERIT analysed data gathered through the DTM to gain insights on migrant profiles; challenges and opportunities in origin, transit and destination countries; migrants’ perceptions towards Europe; migrants’ journeys; and migrants’ decision-making factors.
52. DRC: Mapping the Syrian Diaspora in Six European Countries, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the DRC’s Diaspora programme as part of a project with the Durable Solutions Platform (DSP) joint initiative of DRC, the International Rescue Committee (IRC) and the Norwegian Refugee Council (NRC) to carry out a diaspora mapping study on the Syrian diaspora in Denmark, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. The main aim of the study was to develop a comprehensive overview of Syrian diaspora groups in the selected destination countries, through a mapping of Syrian diaspora organisations, associations and initiatives. Further, the study was aimed at providing a capacity assessment of, among other attributes, the strength, purpose and objectives of Syrian diaspora groups in order to identify areas of potential collaboration and to develop specific recommendations for action regarding context-specific and conflict-sensitive ways of involving members of the diaspora. Specifically, DRC aims to use the mapping and study to engage with the most relevant groups of Syrians (associations and individual) across Europe for consultations on future solution scenarios regarding the Syrian displacement crisis.
53. Mail-Order Brides in Europe, 2017
In cooperation with the Law Faculty at Maastricht University and Panteia, UNU-MERIT implemented a project entitled “Legal Regulations of the Mail-Order Bride Industry” for the European Commission. Specific EU legislation targeting “Mail-Order Brides” is lacking and the challenges encountered are numerous and multifaceted. Since a growing number of mail-order brides are arriving in the EU from third countries, this study produced a systematic overview of existing legislation, mapped out the main challenges encountered (such as domestic violence, sexual exploitation, and the implication of divorce), and explored possibilities to better regulate international marriage agencies. Using a mixed method approach, the research looked at the overall European context, with a particular focus on four country case studies, namely the UK, Germany, the Netherlands and Norway.
54. Study on Migration Routes from West and Central Africa, 2017
Following the Study on Migration Routes in the East and the Horn of Africa, UNU-MERIT was commissioned by GIZ to conduct a similar study for West and Central Africa. The new study covered 13 countries, namely Burkina Faso, Central African Republic, Chad, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Nigeria, Sierra Leone and Senegal. Since 2015, GIZ has commissioned an increasing number of projects related to (irregular) migration in Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to better understand the dynamics of migration and the realities with regards to the migration routes, current and anticipated trends as well as the urgent development needs and the scope for intervention in West and Central Africa.
55. UNIDO position paper and strategy on migration, 2017
UNU-MERIT worked together with UNIDO to develop a position paper and strategy on migration. On 28 September 2016, the Global Migration Group (GMG) officially approved the application of UNIDO to join the group. Parallel to this development, a Cross Departmental Working Group was created by the Managing Director of the Programme Development and Technical Cooperation (PTC) in January 2017 to examine the issue of migration from a cross-departmental perspective, with the objective of improving coherence and enhancing technical expertise on migration.
56. Migration Routes in the East and Horn of Africa, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to summarise the evidence on the mixed migration trends in the East and Horn of Africa. In the context of this report eight countries from this region were studied, namely Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. The project was a response to a significant increase in the commissioning of projects related to (irregular) migration in Africa. In order to respond to these requests, which are expected to further increase in the coming years, GIZ aimed to better understand the complex dynamics of migration in and from the East and Horn of Africa.
57. Policy Coherence Dashboard on Migration and Development at the Local Level, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to develop a dashboard of indicators on policy coherence on migration and development at the local level. The dashboard was aimed at helping local authorities to better understand how migration and development related policies interact across a variety of sectors and to support them in enhancing policy coherence in the field of migration and development in line with migration-related Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Prof. Dr. Melissa Siegel led the project and the products were developed by Sarah Lnagley, Dr. Elaine Lebon-McGregor, and Amy Hong.
58. Impact of Corruption on Female Migration, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to investigate the links between corruption and the causes for female migration. The research team worked on this follow-up study for GIZ which, for the first time, systematically analysed the impact of corruption on female migrants, with a special focus on sexual extortion (‘sextortion’) in order to provide a gender-perspective on corruption encountered during migration. The research team consisted of Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel, Dr Ortrun Merkle and Julia Reinold.
59. Links between corruption and migration, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to investigate the links between corruption and the causes for (irregular) migration. This project developed a theoretical framework to explain the links between corruption and (irregular) migration using two case studies of Ukraine and Mali. The project contributors were Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel, Dr Ortrun Merkle and Julia Reinold.
60. Policy and Institutional Coherence for Migration and Development, 2017
UNU-MERIT signed a new contract with the World Bank’s Knowledge Partnership on Migration and Development (KNOMAD) to continue developing a dashboard of indicators that can be applied by policymakers to assess the levels of coherence of their migration and migration-relevant policies. UNU-MERIT worked in close cooperation with the Technical Working Group on Policy and Institutional Coherence for Migration and Development (co-chaired by UNDP and OECD) as well as other research partners from Columbia University to test the dashboard of indicators in a number of different countries. The results of the pilot were presented at the Global Forum on Migration and Development (GFMD) in Bangladesh.
61. Measuring Policy Coherence for Migration and Development, 2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by KNOMAD to prepare a background paper on policy coherence for migration and development. The primary purpose of the paper was to develop a dashboard of indicators that can be used by domestic policymakers to assess the extent to which their policies are in line with global development goals. As migration looked set to have a place in the Post-2015 Development Agenda, effort was made to promote better monitoring and evaluation of government efforts to promote the positive aspects of migration while mitigating the negatives, represent an important contribution.
62. UNICEF Project: Child Marriage in South Asia, 2016–2017
A team of researchers from UNU-MERIT was mandated to undertake a study on the key drivers of child marriage in South Asia where four in 10 girls are married underage. To inform UNICEF on possible interventions and programmes to end child marriage, a multi-country analysis was conducted to better understand the micro- and macro-level drivers that may contribute to the decline in child marriage in the region. The analysis was based on desk research and quantitative data analysis. The innovative part of the project is its focus on macro-level drivers of child marriage.
63. Second Edition of the Movement Report, 2016–2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the MADE Network, coordinated by the International Catholic Migration Commission (ICMC), to prepare the first edition of the Movement Report which assessed the progress that had been made on achieving each of the eight goals highlighted in civil society’s 5-year 8-point Plan of Action since the UN High Level Dialogue on International Migration and Development in 2013. The report provided a number of recommendations including a need to focus efforts of measurement. UNU-MERIT was then commissioned to prepare the second edition of the Movement Report which took forward this recommendation to develop a set of scorecards to measure civil society progress that can be used by civil society organisations on an annual basis. The report was developed by Elaine Lebon-McGregor.
64. Forced Displacement and Gender: The case of Congolese Refugees in Rwanda, 2016–2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to write a working paper entitled “Forced Displacement, Development and Gender: The case of Congolese Refugees in Rwanda”. The paper is based on data collected for the UNHCR-funded Economic Impacts of Congolese Refugees in Rwanda project. The intention was to improve knowledge on a) how traditional gender roles influence the process of force displacement (decision to flee, resettlement process, etc.); b) how gender roles may be affected by forced displacement; and c) how such an understanding may contribute to the reconstruction of the livelihoods of affected individuals. The research is intended to contribute to improved understanding of the importance of assessing gender issues while addressing forced displacement. The paper was developed by Dr Özge Bilgili, Dr Craig Loschmann and Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel.
65. Migrants in Countries in Crisis (MICIC), 2016–2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to prepare a background document informing a regional consultation of approximately 100 delegates from across Eastern and Southern African countries on key issues related to the Migrants in Countries in Crisis (MICIC) initiative. The research was financed through the European Union (EU)-funded project “Migrants in Countries in Crisis: Supporting an Evidence-based Approach for Effective and Cooperative State Action” which was launched in January 2015 and ran for four years. The project supports the broader “Migrants in Countries in Crisis”’ (MICIC) initiative, which is a government-led initiative launched in 2013 and co-chaired by the Philippines and the United States. The project contributors were Dr Katie Kuschminder and Sarah Langley.
66. Mapping & Study of the Jordanian and Palestinian Diasporas in Germany, 2016–2017
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out a diaspora mapping study on the Syrian diaspora in Germany. The main aims of the study were to gain insights into the profile of the Syrian diaspora in Germany, through a mapping and documentation of Syrian diaspora organisations, associations and initiatives and to analyse their contributions to peace, development and reconstruction in Syria. Moreover, potential for cooperation between diaspora organisations and GIZ were identified, by developing recommendations regarding a context-specific and conflict-sensitive strategy for approaching the organized diaspora.
67. Finalisation of the ILO/IIDS report on the use of remittances in Nepal, global good practices from financial products and the migration & development discourse, 2016
UNU-MERIT contributed to the finalisation of a study on Nepalese labour migration and remittances, investigating the complexities between migration and development. The study discussed possible ways in which Nepal can maximise the positive developmental impacts of migration.
68. Enhancing Georgia’s Migration Management (ENIGMMA), 2016
The ENIGMMA project focused on enhancing the capacities of Georgian authorities related to integrated border management and migration, and to this end education is an important component. ENIGMMA was a joint initiative of the European Union Delegation to Georgia, civil society, the International Centre for Migration Policy Development (ICMPD), and the International Organisation for Migration (IOM).
69. Integration Policy in Turkey, 2016
UNU-MERIT engaged with the IOM-led Project on Supporting Turkey in Development of National Harmonisation (Integration) Policy through a set of academic and policy-oriented research activities. This involved selecting and analysing good practices and tools from other countries to inform Turkey about potential examples that can benefit Turkey. Turkey was developing its first comprehensive set of integration policies covering a broad range of policy areas such as labour, education, health, and social policies. The project was led by Dr Özge Bilgili.
70. Support of a Development-sensitive and Coherent Turkish Migration Policy Framework (Sessiz Destek), 2015–2016
UNU-MERIT supported ICMPD in its implementation of the “Support of a Development-sensitive and Coherent Turkish Migration Policy Framework” project, short title ‘Sessiz Destek’, an initiative designed to support the Directorate General for Migration Management (DGMM) in strategy development and capacity development. The Sessiz Destek project contributed by identifying development-sensitive migration policy objectives both in the internal and external dimension of migration strategies.
71. UNDP-ICMPD Position Paper, 2015–2016
UNDP commissioned UNU-MERIT to map the activities of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) and the International Centre for Migration Policy Development in the context of the first Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) from 2005 and the subsequent MoU from 2012. The research team at UNU-MERIT subsequently drew up a position paper on migration and development that can be used to inform the future direction of cooperation. Prof. Dr Melissa Siegel and Elaine Lebon-McGregor were contributing to the project.
72. The Economic Impacts of Congolese Refugees in Rwanda: Labour Markets, Social Infrastructure and Aid Effectiveness, 2015–2016
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out a research project using a mixed-methods approach to study the lives of Congolese refugees in Rwanda and how their protracted presence affects the economic lives of Rwandan citizens. The objective of this research was to add to our understanding of the long-term, economic consequences of the presence of refugee populations on host communities and to create concrete policy advice on how to mitigate the potential negative effects of refugee presence on the economic lives of host communities.
73. Engagement of the Diaspora in Private Sector Employment, 2015–2016
UNU-MERIT was commissioned by the Repatriation and Departure Service (DT&V) of the Dutch Ministry of Security and Justice to examine the concept of diaspora work placements, which refers to the recruitment of migrants and their descendants by multinational companies in the country of residence for placement in company offices in a migrant or diaspora member’s country of (ancestral) origin. While much of the literature on the role of return migrants and diaspora members in the private sector in their countries of origin or ancestry has focused on the role of such mobile populations as investors or entrepreneurs, their role as employees has been less well explored.
74. Asylum-Related Migration Flows to the EU, 2015–2016
UNU-MERIT launched a project in collaboration with IOM’s Global Migration Data Analysis Centre (GMDAC) for the European Asylum Support Office (EASO) on the factors that influence asylum-related migration flows to the EU. This project provided a systematic review of past literature and evidence on the factors that influence migration flows into the EU for asylum purposes. Given the migration management crisis that has confronted much of Europe over 2014 and 2015 this project was intended to feed into a knowledge base to help scholars and policy makers alike establish more evidence-based predictive frameworks for asylum-based mobility patterns.
75. Study on Good Practices in Promoting and Supporting Migrant Entrepreneurship, 2015–2016
The overall objectives of this study, led by a consortium of the Joint Institute for Innovation Policy (JIIP) and Valdani Vicari & Associati (VVA), were to collect data and assess good practices of support to migrant entrepreneurship. The evaluation elaborates on 20 best practices and a benchmark tool, which serves as a reference to design and/or improve such schemes across the EU. X
76. Refugee Entrepreneurship in the Netherlands, 2015–2016
In partnership with Josette Dijkhuizen, Honorary Professor in Entrepreneurship Development at the Maastricht School of Management, UNU-MERIT implemented an evaluation of a pilot project for refugees in North Brabant. The project aims to support and mentor refugees with entrepreneurial backgrounds in establishing new businesses in the Netherlands. It was launched in Tilburg during an information session organised for prospective participants. Eight individuals were selected and, after pre-project interviews, participated in workshops and mentoring for the development of their business plans. Dr Katrin Marchand was the expert leading the evaluation.
77. Understanding Irregular Migrants Decision Making Factors in Transit, 2014–2016
This project examined how irregular migrants decide to: 1) stay in a country of transit; 2) pursue onward migration; or 3) return to their country of origin? It also considered how conditions in transit and policy settings influence individual decision making. Fieldwork was conducted from April- July 2015 in Athens and Istanbul. A total of 1,058 surveys and 60 follow-up interviews were completed with migrants from Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan and Syria.
78. Integration policies: Who Benefits? The development and use of indicators in integration debates, 2014–2016
UNU-MERIT became a partner of the project “Integration policies: Who benefits? The development and use of indicators in integration debates” (MIPEX 2015). The purpose of the project was to develop better tools to identify and measure integration outcomes through better evaluation of policy interventions. Özge Bilgili, researcher at UNU-MERIT and its School of Governance, and the Barcelona Centre for International Affairs (CIBOD) was a lead researcher on this project where she analysed existing impact analyses on integration policies in 14 EU countries as well as in the US, Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
79. Mid-Term Evaluation of the South Asian Labour Migration (SALM) Project, 2015
The overall objective of the SALM project was to promote well-managed labour migration from South Asia to the Gulf Cooperation Council countries (GCC), to ensure of effective protection the rights of vulnerable migrant workers, enhance the development impact of labour migration and reduce irregular flows. The project targeted low-skilled migrant workers from India, Nepal and Pakistan migrating to Kuwait, Qatar and United Arab Emirates (UAE).
80. Highly-Skilled Human Capital Movement, 2015
Using 13 countries in the Caribbean, Central America, and South America as case studies, this research project explored the mobility patterns and demographic characteristics of highly-skilled emigrants within specific parts of the LAC region. Highly-skilled individuals—those who have completed tertiary education—have much higher chances of becoming emigrants. Small island states have experienced the greatest rates of emigration of their highly-skilled population, as have countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC), a region with an estimated skilled emigration rate of 11 percent.
81. International Experiences with Assisted Voluntary Return Programmes, 2015
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to conduct research on European countries’ experiences with Assisted Voluntary Return Programmes. The study resulted in a comparative assessment of six countries in Europe. The project was led by Dr Katie Kuschminder.
82. Two projects on Diaspora Engagement in Germany: Kenya and Nigeria, 2014–2015
Following on from the study on Tunisian Diaspora engagement in Germany in 2013, UNU-MERIT was commissioned UNU-MERIT to conduct a further two studies. These studies focused on the engagement of Nigerian and Kenyan diaspora organisations in Germany.
83. Comparative Research on Assisted Voluntary Return and Reintegration (AVRR), 2014–2015
This project aimed to inform policies and programmes for assisting the voluntary return and reintegration of migrants, including irregular migrants and unsuccessful asylum seekers. It was innovative in bridging the divide between research and policy to regularly have discussions regarding methodology, field challenges and results, while maintaining the independence of the research. The research had three objectives of: 1) Understanding the decision to return 2) Developing a method to define and measure sustainable return 3) Examining the factors that determine sustainable return. This was achieved through the collection of 273 semi-structured interviews with migrants in Australia, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Greece, Indonesia, Pakistan, Sudan, Sri Lanka, Switzerland, The Netherlands, Turkey, the United Kingdom, and Vietnam.
84. Independent Evaluation of the Swiss Migration Partnerships, 2014–2015
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the Swiss Migration Partnerships with Kosovo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serbia, Nigeria and Tunisia, five years after the signing of the first agreement. The main objectives of the evaluation were: to provide information on the added value of migration partnerships compared to other forms of bilateral cooperation; to take stock of how migration partnerships are implemented and to what extent the objectives set in this instrument are achieved and to reflect on the effects of migration partnerships.
85. The root causes on Irregular Migration from Afghanistan: Determinants and processes & decision-making processes and experiences, 2014–2015
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out two research projects on irregular migration. The first project looked at the determinants and processes of irregular migration from Afghanistan. The second involved in-depth interviews with irregular Afghan migrants in the Netherlands in order to better understand their decision-making process and experiences. The projects are intended to improve the evidence base on migration processes and pathways of irregular migrants seeking asylum.
86. Final Evaluation of the Decent Work Across Borders Project, 2014
The overall objective of the project was to promote the circular migration of professionals and highly skilled personnel in the health care sector through the development of a pilot scheme of specialised employment services and a system of skills testing and certification. The midterm evaluation assessed whether the project is on the right track towards achieving the stated objectives. The evaluation also served to inform organisational decision making and ensure transparency and accountability to the donor.
87. Evaluation of the GIZ Returning Experts Programme, 2014
UNU-MERIT worked with GIZ and the Centre for International Migration and Development (CIM) on a short-term evaluation of the Migration and Development Programme Returning Experts Component. The Returning Experts offers support to migrants in Germany wishing to return to their country of origin and work in a development related capacity. This project examined the role of the returning experts in transferring knowledge to the country of origin.
88. Study on the Labour Market Impacts of Forced Migration, 2013–2015
The Labour Market Impacts of Forced Migration (LAMFOR) was a COMPAS project in partnership with UNU-MERIT that provided statistical evidence on the labour market implications of forced migration situations, for the first time. In addition to the core researchers from Oxford and UNU-MERIT, the project had an Expert Advisory Board composed of senior policy makers and senior scholars who interact regularly with policy makers.
89. Study on the characteristics of the Tunisian Diaspora in Germany, 2013
Based on a request from GIZ Tunisia, UNU-MERIT conducted a study on the characteristics of the Tunisian Diaspora in Germany, the level and structures of their organisations and their engagement in development. This also involved mapping of diaspora organisations in order to provide an overview of Tunisian associations, federations, and trade associations in Germany. Moreover, it identified potentials for constructive cooperation with institutions of GIZ.
90. Mid-Term Evaluation of the Decent Work Across Borders Project, 2013
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to conduct a midterm evaluation to assess whether the project was on the right track towards achieving its objectives. The overall objective of the project was to promote the circular migration of professionals and highly skilled personnel in the health care sector through the development of a pilot scheme of specialised employment services and a system of skills testing and certification. The evaluation also served to inform organisational decision making and ensure transparency and accountability to the donor.
91. Evaluation of the ILO Strategy on International Labour Migration, 2013
UNU-MERIT conducted an evaluation of the ILO strategy on international labour migration with the specific aim of assessing its strategy, methodology and results and providing guidance on priorities for the future. This evaluation took place as a follow up to a request from the Governing Body of the ILO at its November 2012 Session.
92. Background paper for the European Report on Development 2013: Policy Options and Feasibility for Governing Labour Migration, 2013
The European Report on Development (ERD) was the main output of the “Mobilising European Research for Development Policies” initiative, supported by the European Commission and seven EU Member States: Finland, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Spain, Sweden and the United Kingdom. The objective of the ERD 2012-2013 was to provide an independent contribution to the emerging debate on a possible post-2015 framework. The chapter on migration delineated elements and possible aspects of labour migration and mobility which would be valuable for a post-2015 multilateral framework for development from the perspective of developing countries. In addition, it aimed to answer how the EU as external actor could support better mainstreaming of key issues regarding labour migration in a future framework. The commissioned background paper on a multilateral framework for labour migration fed into the last part of the migration chapter, which indicated the relevant elements and ideas for the integration of labour migration into a future global framework for development and a possible mode of governance. It helped the chapter authors to reflect on possible future options of multilateral governance regarding labour migration and assess the incentives and disincentives of developed as well as developing countries to cooperate on labour migration governance on an international level.
93. Migrant & Refugee Integration in Global Cities: The role of Cities & Businesses, 2013
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out a research project focused on how businesses and governments in global cities contribute to the economic and social integration of migrant and refugee populations, either through outreach, specialized programs, the provision of services or targeted funding of NGOs; and to what extent these contributions can be deepened or expanded. The study focused on efforts by the private sector and city governments – both separately and in partnership – to give these groups greater protection and opportunities in employment markets and communities. More specifically, the study identified good practices among the selected cities as well as gaps in intervention by determining whether and how business and cities were working together to create opportunities for migrants and refugees to deepen their integration into society. The study focused on seven global cities: Auckland, Buenos Aires, Chicago, Kuala Lumpur, Lisbon, Nairobi, Rotterdam, and São Paulo.
94. Knowledge Exchange on Civic Integration, 2012–2013
The International Civic Integration Knowledge exchange training programme was sponsored by the Dutch Ministry of Internal Affairs. In partnership with Panteia/Research voor Beleid, the project involved the organisation of an International Civic Integration Network. This project was primarily about international knowledge exchange. Key aspects of the project were three working visits (trainings) in France, Germany and the UK to establish networks for the sharing of ideas and experiences; and a concluding training in the Netherlands. Preparatory country reports were prepared to ensure that the working visits were tailored to the specific context. The main project deliverables included reports of each of the training visit which described the process that has taken place, a summary of the activities, the outcomes of the meeting, learning points, and some concrete points for further discussions which culminated in the production of a final report which answered key knowledge questions.
95. UNHCR Shelter Assistance Evaluation Afghanistan, 2012–2013
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out an evaluation of the UNHCR’s Shelter Assistance Programme. UNHCR’s Shelter Assistance Programme provided units of shelter to vulnerable returnees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) throughout Afghanistan. The programme was subjected to technical and financial reviews and its design and implementation procedures were improved over the years. However, its contribution to reintegration outcomes, defined as achieving sustainable return and parity between returnees and other members of the local community, had not been researched. This evaluation sought to fill this gap. The methodology had two key components: 1. A shelter beneficiary survey and 2. A shelter beneficiary evaluation.
96. Profiling Ethiopian Migration: A Comparison of Characteristics of Ethiopian Migrants to Africa, the Middle East and the North, 2012–2013
This chapter summarised the various characteristics of migrants from Ethiopia to three different migration destinations: northern countries, other African countries, and the Middle East. The results showed that the characteristics of the migrants and their origin households differ depending on migration destination, that increased migration flows to Africa and the Middle East in recent decades played an important role in reshaping the profile of Ethiopian migrant, and that the Ethiopian migration flows at that time coincided with some of the current global migration trends, while also contrasting with some of the overall migration figures representing Africa.
97. Migration and multi-dimensional poverty in Moldovan communities, 2012
This paper aimed to understand the links between migration and poverty at the community level using data collected in the second half of 2011 in 180 Moldova communities. It examined four dimensions of poverty at the community level, namely: 1) infrastructure, 2) education, 3) livelihood and 4) health. The study found that communities with higher rates of migration are significantly associated with a higher level of deprivation in infrastructure and the multi-dimensional index.
98. Volkswagen Foundation Project Europe’s Global Linkages & the Impact of the Financial Crisis: Policies for Sustainable Trade, Capital Flows, and Migration, 2011–2013
This project was carried out by a consortium of partners including UNU-MERIT. There were three main work packages: 1) International Trade, FDI, and Financial Frictions, 2) International Banking, 3) International Migration. Within the International Migration work package, there are three main areas: 1) Migration, Trade, and FDI: Complements or Substitutes – A Global View, 2) Immigration, Outsourcing, and Host Country Employment and 3) Transnationalism and Migrant Heterogeneity. UNU-MERIT worked on Transnationalism and Migrant Heterogeneity within this project.
99. Study on Children and Elderly left behind in Moldova and Georgia, 2010–2013
This study looked at the effects of migration on children and the elderly left behind and assessed the impact wide-scale migration had on some of Moldova and Georgia’s most vulnerable groups. The study provided a comprehensive overview of the conditions of children and the elderly who have been abandoned by migrating caretakers. The study assessed the economic, psychological, social, and institutional effects of migration on family members left behind and suggested ways in which states could mitigate the negative effects of migration via the formulation of more responsive and responsible social/social protection policies. The study was carried out in conjunction with the Kiel Institute for the World Economy (Germany) and the International Centre for Social Research and Policy Analysis (Georgia) with support from the International Organisation for Migration mission in Chisinau, Moldova.
100. Evaluation of the Dutch Government ‘Blue Birds’ Circular Migration Pilot, 2011–2012
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to evaluate why the HIT Foundation was unable to reach its target of 160 migrants working in regular vacancies within the Netherlands in shortage sectors after one year in the context of the Dutch government’s circular migration pilot. The Dutch “Blue Birds” circular migration pilot was initiated by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in cooperation with the Ministry of Justice and the Ministry of Social Affairs and Employment. The pilot was an experiment under the Dutch Migration and Development policy in which circular migration was one of the priorities and aimed at researching whether circular or temporary labour migration can create a triple win situation for migrants, sending countries and receiving country. Furthermore, the pilot was expected to provide clarity regarding, risk, possibilities and difficulties or impossibilities involved in circular migration. Finally, the pilot was intended to explore if circular migration can be used as a tool for development cooperation. The circular migration pilot was designed to bring in 200 middle skilled workers from two different developing countries to work in the Netherlands for a maximum of two years. Circular migrants were intended to obtain training and practical experience in the Netherlands which could strengthen the migrant’s personal competences and bring development to home countries or communities.
101. IOM Afghanistan Migration Profile and New Data Collection, 2011–2012
IOM Afghanistan partnered with UNU-MERIT to implement the project which included a comprehensive assessment of all available data in addition to the collection of new data on migration and remittances in Afghanistan. The new data included 1000 questionnaires completed with migrant, non-migrant and return migrant households across selected regions of Afghanistan. The survey results were incorporated into the planned migration profile. The migration profile consists of two parts: 1) Comprehensive overview of current migration patterns based on existing migration data sources and acquired new migration data on Afghanistan; 2) Report on circular migration and remittances in Afghanistan. This project culminated in the production of the first migration profile for Afghanistan. The migration profile is a comprehensive document addressing all facets of migration in Afghanistan. For this work, an Inter-Ministerial Technical Working Group was established to provide guidance and support to the project.
102. The Policy Response to Repatriation and Reintegration in Burundi, 2011
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to carry out this his research project focused on the challenges that repatriation and reintegration pose to different actors (government bodies, international organisations and NGOs) and individuals in Burundi. At the time Burundi found itself at a crossroad, recovering from a long period of conflict and moving towards economic recovery and development. During this transition phase Burundi welcomed more than 500,000 former refugees, mostly coming from neighbouring country Tanzania, back home. The return of these former refugees put additional pressure on Burundi’s scarce resources such as land. In addition, the reintegration process is challenging due to structural problems of poverty, unemployment and lack of infrastructure. As a result of the transition phase, in which Burundi attempted to change its status from a post-conflict country that receives vast amounts of humanitarian aid to a developing country, several international organisations and international NGOs slowly withdrew their activities in the country. The first question addressed in the study was whether or not the repatriation and especially the reintegration of Burundians that lived abroad was successful. The second question was how the transition away from humanitarian aid to develop affected both repatriates and residents in their communities.
103. Remittances Study on the Needs and Wants of African Migrants in Europe, 2010
This project was part of a large-scale research initiative funded by the European Commission. The entire study—of which UNU-MERIT research was but one part—aimed to promote financial access to migrants by fostering competition in the money transfer market, building partnerships between and among micro-finance institutions in ten sub-Saharan African countries and migrant associations across Europe, and providing micro-finance institutions in select African counties with the technical assistance to develop more competitive money transfer services. Within this larger initiative, the study conducted by UNU-MERIT involved conducting short surveys among 3000 African migrants living in selected European countries. The survey was implemented with migrants from Benin, Burkina Faso, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Tanzania, and Uganda who were living in Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom. The survey enabled the creation of a general profile of remittance-senders from with the target groups, uncovered the financial services and tools that migrants actively want and need, and suggested methods via which migrants can be better engaged in formal financial services, particularly micro-finance initiatives.
104. Evaluation of the IOM Temporary Return of Qualified Nationals to Afghanistan, 2010
This looked at the impacts of the Temporary Return of Qualified Afghans programmes specifically from a transfer of knowledge perspective. This was a qualitative study with interviews conducted with program participants, employers, colleagues and those employed to run the programme.
105. ‘Geld Naar Huis’ Remittance Price Comparison Website Evaluation, 2010
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to conduct an evaluation of the Dutch remittance service comparison website “Geld Naar Huis”. The evaluation involved assessing how well the website had met its inception objectives (including promoting migrants’ understanding of remittance methods and services, increasing transparency in the market, and promoting improvement in the price-quality ratio of remittance services), the degree to which the website encompasses relevant remittance services providers, the quality and value of information available on the website, the website’s user friendliness, and the financial sustainability and future of the website. The results of the evaluation were used to suggest how the website could better meet the needs of its users, how it could become financially sustainable, and how aspects of the World Bank quality seal standards could be reconciled with the constraints of the website operation.
106. IS Academy on Migration and Development: Migration a World in Motion, 2009–2014
UNU-MERIT was commissioned to investigate the impact migration has had on development of home countries and communities through the collection of data on Afghan, Burundian, Ethiopian, and Moroccan migrants living in the Netherlands. The goal for the information collected about the situation of these migrant households in the Netherlands—as well as their contributions to family and communities left behind— was to help guide more robust, evidence-based migration and development policy in the future. The data collected from 1000 households in the Netherlands was matched by data collection in each of the countries of origin, a process that enabled the effects of migration to be understood as a holistic, multidimensional process. Within this project, the following migration and development themes were explored in depth: circular migration, return, remittances, brain drain, and EU external migration policy.
107. Netherlands-Afghanistan Remittances Corridor Study, 2009
UNU-MERIT followed the World Bank evaluation guidelines to construct a comprehensive overview of the flow of remittances traveling from Afghans resident in the Netherlands back to their families and communities of origin. The study involved a household survey that assessed the demographic characteristics of Afghans living in the Netherlands, documented the remittance-sending behaviours of respondents (in terms of frequency of remitting, average transfer value, most-used transfer channels, etc.), and migration histories of respondents. In addition to the survey in the Netherlands, a similar survey was conducted among remittance recipients in Afghanistan to enable a better review of needs and constraints on both sides of the corridor. The study also involved a though assessment of the institutions, structures, and linkages within and between the financial sectors in the Netherlands and Afghanistan. The study culminated in the formulation of a series of recommendations for the Ministry of Foreign Affairs regarding ways to bolster the use of formal remittance transfer channels, strengthen the financial sector in Afghanistan, and facilitate better exchange between financial agencies and institutions in the Netherlands and Afghanistan.
108. Netherlands-Suriname Remittances Corridor Study, 2005
Staff from UNU-MERT were commissioned to conduct a study of the remittance corridor between the Netherlands and Surinam. The remittance corridor study followed the World Bank evaluation guidelines to construct a comprehensive overview of the flow of remittances traveling from Surinamese resident in the Netherlands back to their families and communities of origin. The study involved a household survey in Surinam that assessed remittance-receiving behaviours of respondents (in terms of frequency of remitting, average transfer value, most-used transfer channels, etc). In addition, several interviews with conducted with key stakeholders in both countries. The study also involved a though assessment of the institutions, structures, and linkages within and between the financial sectors in the Netherlands and Surinam. The study culminated in the formulation of a series of recommendations for the Ministry of Finance.