For decades migrants have entered Europe through regular and irregular channels for various reasons that reach from seeking economic opportunities to obtaining legal protection. The Displacement Tracking Matrix (DTM) is a system to track and monitor the displacement and population mobility. It is designed to regularly and systematically capture, process and disseminate information to provide a better understanding of the movements and evolving needs of displaced populations, whether on site or en route. Conceptualised in 2004 in Iraq, for the assessments of Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) and monitoring exercises, the DTM has been continuously refined and enhanced through years of operational experience in countries in both conflict and natural disaster settings. Essentially it provides primary data and information on displacement, both in country and at the global level. Currently, a variety of activities are implemented under DTM operations to monitor migration flows from various continents to Europe. A better understanding of migration flows from Afghanistan and Pakistan to Europe is necessary as data is lacking on this subject and more data is necessary to support evidence-based policy-making.
This study analyses the data gathered through the DTM and additional surveys of migrants from Afghanistan and Pakistan and those who remained in the country of origin throughout the different stages of the migration process (before leaving, transit, destination, upon return). The data analysis aims to gain insights on the migrant profiles; the challenges and opportunities in origin, transit and destination countries; migrant’s perceptions towards Europe; in-depth analysis of the migrant journey (including migration routes and trajectories as well as the role of intermediaries and the diaspora and vulnerabilities experienced along the route); and migrant decision-making factors.
The outputs of this study will be a final research report and comprehensive do-file(s). The overall analysis of the final research report is based on desk research, combining literature review and data analysis.